Most likely or definitely true
We’re not sure yet
Processed meat causes cancer
What you may have heard
Consumption of processed meats can increase the risk of cancer.
What science tells us
Processed meat has been changed through curing, smoking, salting, fermentation, or other processes to help preserve it or enhance flavor. Processed meats are most commonly made of pork or beef, such as bacon, sausage, ham, bologna, hot dogs, and deli meats such as chicken and turkey.
In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that processed meat is a Group 1 carcinogen, which means that it is carcinogenic (or cancer-causing) to humans, based on evidence for increased risk of colorectal cancer (IARC). Recent studies also suggest a possible role of processed meat in increasing risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer, though more research is needed. It is unknown if there is a safe level for eating processed meat.
Laboratory Evidence/Supporting Evidence
Some animal studies have also shown the presence of colon cancer among rat studies which further supports the epidemiological evidence (Lyon).
IARC Carcinogen Classification: Group 1 (Carcinogenic to humans)
How to reduce your risk
The American Cancer Society (ACS) reports that at least 18% of all cancers and about 16% of cancer deaths in the U.S. are related to excess body weight, physical inactivity, and/or poor nutrition (ACS). Healthy eating includes foods that are high in nutrients, in amounts that help get to and stay at a healthy body weight. Limit or avoid red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, highly processed foods, and refined grain products. Instead, choose proteins such as fish, poultry, and beans (ACS).
Limit or avoid red and processed meats and replace them with proteins such as fish, poultry, and beans.
Learn More From These Trusted Sources
American Cancer Society (ACS): Diet guidelines
Cleveland Clinic: Cancer and processed meats
Cancer Council: Processed meat and cancer
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Red meat and processed meat
Published: June 1, 2021
Verified/updated: August 22, 2022